April 02, 2003
National Day of Direct Action on A7
As a group, poets have an extraordinary and just tradition of civil disobedience; the much-invoked-of-late Ginsberg was no stranger to the prison-house of prison. On April 7th, non-violent CD will be one one of many options for actively resisting an unjust and illegal war on Iraq, and the accelerating corrosion of your freedoms at home. For that Monday, a coalition including United for Peace and Justice, Direct Action to Stop the War, and Iraqi Pledge of Resistance has called for a National Day of Direct Action. See the call at ActAgainstWar; see New York-specific information at m27coalition. Join or form an affinity group; decide what you would like to do. We and our communities are the fundamental units of decision and action. Active engagement against this outrage will ease anxieties about the political nature and efficacy of poems. It will also clearly indicate that you do not support your government's actions; will not tolerate them; and will not settle for what freedoms are assigned to you according to the day's color-coding. Fight for freedom; art for art!
Posted by Joshua Clover at April 02, 2003 02:55 PM
I realize that to ask a dumb question takes both dumbness & courage, so let me try: Current CNN reports state that over 70% of Americans support Bush in the US/UK war on Iraq. Yet all the Americans I have swapped messages with over the last 5 days say that they cannot understand that high level of support. Most say that almost everyone they know is against this war. I know friendship circles self-select like minded beings, but....has there been any research done as to whether the US pollsters/media conglomerates are spinning their polling results and the actually the % of support for this war is a lot lower??? Clearly it is in the US Administration's best interests from a propaganda POV to continue to report a strong majority of citizens supporting this war...any thots out there or am I only being dumb and missing the courage part?
Let's see an example by converting our favoriteNumber variable from a stack variable to a heap variable. The first thing we'll do is find the project we've been working on and open it up in Project Builder. In the file, we'll start right at the top and work our way down. Under the line:
The Stack is just what it sounds like: a tower of things that starts at the bottom and builds upward as it goes. In our case, the things in the stack are called "Stack Frames" or just "frames". We start with one stack frame at the very bottom, and we build up from there.
Note first that favoriteNumbers type changed. Instead of our familiar int, we're now using int*. The asterisk here is an operator, which is often called the "star operator". You will remember that we also use an asterisk as a sign for multiplication. The positioning of the asterisk changes its meaning. This operator effectively means "this is a pointer". Here it says that favoriteNumber will be not an int but a pointer to an int. And instead of simply going on to say what we're putting in that int, we have to take an extra step and create the space, which is what does. This function takes an argument that specifies how much space you need and then returns a pointer to that space. We've passed it the result of another function, , which we pass int, a type. In reality, is a macro, but for now we don't have to care: all we need to know is that it tells us the size of whatever we gave it, in this case an int. So when is done, it gives us an address in the heap where we can put an integer. It is important to remember that the data is stored in the heap, while the address of that data is stored in a pointer on the stack.
For this program, it was a bit of overkill. It's a lot of overkill, actually. There's usually no need to store integers in the Heap, unless you're making a whole lot of them. But even in this simpler form, it gives us a little bit more flexibility than we had before, in that we can create and destroy variables as we need, without having to worry about the Stack. It also demonstrates a new variable type, the pointer, which you will use extensively throughout your programming. And it is a pattern that is ubiquitous in Cocoa, so it is a pattern you will need to understand, even though Cocoa makes it much more transparent than it is here.
The most basic duality that exists with variables is how the programmer sees them in a totally different way than the computer does. When you're typing away in Project Builder, your variables are normal words smashed together, like software titles from the 80s. You deal with them on this level, moving them around and passing them back and forth.