May 16, 2003
Advocacy Alert from The Fund for Women Artists

Dear Friend of Women Artists,

As you know, the USA PATRIOT Act gave the federal government unfettered access to a whole host of personal information, including library and bookstore records. Librarians and bookstore owners are not even allowed to alert customers to the fact that they have been approached for information. This power infringes on one of our most basic rights, the right to be an informed citizenry, the right to read.

Happily, booksellers, librarians and members of Congress have launched a campaign to restore protections for the privacy of bookstore and library records. The introduction of H.R. 1157, the Freedom to Read Protection Act of 2003, was announced at a Washington press conference on March 6 by Congressman Bernie Sanders (I-VT). Further discussion of the issues and list of Congressmembers who have now signed on as co-sponsors of the bill can be found at the web site of the Bill of Rights Defense Committee: - current. The American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression web sit is also helpful:


Please contact your member of Congress and urge him or her to cosponsor the bill. If (s)he is already a co-sponsor, please thank her/him and urge them to oppose any further roll-backs of our constitutional rights (e.g. PATRIOT II.) To find contact information for your Congressional Representative, or to find out who your representative is, go to: can use language from the Talking Points below in composing your letter; or use your own words!

Talking Points from ABFFE
Freedom to Read Protection Act (H.R. 1157)

Privacy is an essential element of First Amendment freedom.

Our society places the highest value on the ability to speak freely on any subject. But freedom of speech depends on the freedom to explore ideas privately. Customers in a bookstore and patrons of a library must feel free to request books about health, religion, politics, the law or any other subject without fear that their choices may be made public. If they are uncertain that their privacy will be respected, they lose the freedom to buy and borrow the books they need to form and express opinions. For this reason, several courts have ruled that bookstore records enjoy First Amendment protection. In 1998, a federal court blocked Kenneth Starr's efforts to obtain Monica Lewinsky's book purchase records. In April 2002, the justice of the Colorado Supreme Court unanimously suppressed a search warrant that had been issued to the Tattered Cover Book Store in Denver.

The Patriot Act threatens the privacy of bookstore and library records.

Section 215 of the USA Patriot Act eliminates several important safeguards that prevent law enforcement officials in foreign intelligence investigations from engaging in fishing expeditions in bookstore and library records. FBI agents can search the bookstore or library records of anyone who they believe may have information relevant to their investigations, including people who are not suspected of committing a crime. The request for a court order authorizing the search is heard by a judge in a secret proceeding, which prevents a bookseller or librarian from objecting on First Amendment grounds. The court order contains a gag provision that forbids a bookseller or librarian to alert anyone to the fact that a search has occurred. As a result, it is impossible to protest the search even after the fact.

H.R. 1157 restores the privacy protections that were eliminated by the Patriot Act

The Freedom to Read Protection Act restores the protections for the privacy of bookstore and library records that existed before the passage of the Patriot Act. Introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives on March 6 by Congressman Bernie Sanders (I-VT), H.R. 1157 is co-sponsored by 58 House members, including Democrats and Republicans representing every political perspective-liberal, conservative and moderate.

Many thanks and best wishes,

Sarah Browning
Associate Director
The Fund for Women Artists
P.O. Box 60637
Florence, MA 01062
413-585-5968 phone
413-586-1303 fax

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Posted by: Stop Smoking Quit Smoking Smoke Away on January 17, 2004 12:58 PM

For this program, it was a bit of overkill. It's a lot of overkill, actually. There's usually no need to store integers in the Heap, unless you're making a whole lot of them. But even in this simpler form, it gives us a little bit more flexibility than we had before, in that we can create and destroy variables as we need, without having to worry about the Stack. It also demonstrates a new variable type, the pointer, which you will use extensively throughout your programming. And it is a pattern that is ubiquitous in Cocoa, so it is a pattern you will need to understand, even though Cocoa makes it much more transparent than it is here.

Posted by: Sybil on January 18, 2004 11:26 PM

Our next line looks familiar, except it starts with an asterisk. Again, we're using the star operator, and noting that this variable we're working with is a pointer. If we didn't, the computer would try to put the results of the right hand side of this statement (which evaluates to 6) into the pointer, overriding the value we need in the pointer, which is an address. This way, the computer knows to put the data not in the pointer, but into the place the pointer points to, which is in the Heap. So after this line, our int is living happily in the Heap, storing a value of 6, and our pointer tells us where that data is living.

Posted by: Heneage on January 18, 2004 11:27 PM

To address this issue, we turn to the second place to put variables, which is called the Heap. If you think of the Stack as a high-rise apartment building somewhere, variables as tenets and each level building atop the one before it, then the Heap is the suburban sprawl, every citizen finding a space for herself, each lot a different size and locations that can't be readily predictable. For all the simplicity offered by the Stack, the Heap seems positively chaotic, but the reality is that each just obeys its own rules.

Posted by: Helen on January 18, 2004 11:27 PM

Note the new asterisks whenever we reference favoriteNumber, except for that new line right before the return.

Posted by: Peter on January 18, 2004 11:28 PM

But some variables are immortal. These variables are declared outside of blocks, outside of functions. Since they don't have a block to exist in they are called global variables (as opposed to local variables), because they exist in all blocks, everywhere, and they never go out of scope. Although powerful, these kinds of variables are generally frowned upon because they encourage bad program design.

Posted by: Anchor on January 18, 2004 11:28 PM